See http://www.consumerfinance.gov/regulations/ability-to-repay-and-qualified-mortgage-standards-under-the-truth-in-lending-act-regulation-z/. Disparate impact is one of the methods of proving lending discrimination under ECOA. See 12 C.F.R. pt. 1002 & Supp. I.
 For instance, in 1994, eight federal agencies published the Policy Statement on Discrimination in Lending, 59 Fed. Reg. 18,266 (Apr. 15, 1994), and last year the Bureau issued a bulletin on lending discrimination, CFPB Bulletin 2012-04 (Fair Lending) (Apr. 18, 2012). In addition, the OCC, Board, FDIC, NCUA, and Bureau each have fair lending examination procedures.
 Even where a facially neutral practice results in a disproportionately negative impact on a protected class, a creditor is not liable provided the practice meets a legitimate business need that cannot reasonably be achieved as well by means that are less disparate in their impact. See 12 C.F.R. §1002.6; 12 C.F.R. pt. 1002, Supp. I, § 1002.6, ¶ 6(a)-2.
 Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, Pub. L. No. 111-203, § 1411, 124 Stat. 1376, 2142 (2010) (codified at 15 U.S.C. § 1639c).
 The OCC, Board, FDIC, and the NCUA have supervisory authority as to the FHA.